Metalworking - Historical Perspective

Technological processes control automated systems

Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them Metalworking - Historical Perspective with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience.

Technological processes control with use of automated systems includes the solution of the following main objectives Metalworking - Historical Perspective: processes` parameters control (temperature and pressure in the apparatuses, content and quality of liquids and gases, etc.); alarm system (warning, preventing) of the parameters` values deviation beyond the permissible limitsо; blocking (inhibiting) of improper equipment switching; equipment protection in emergency situations (switching off, the placement into a safe mode Metalworking - Historical Perspective).

Production processes automation begins with the definition of problem which determines the level (degree) of the specific object automation, such as process installation. Hereby determines the direction of all future work, its scope and cost of expenditures, in particular, the acquisition and implementation of automation. The important thing in solving Metalworking - Historical Perspective of the automation problem is the selection of the control system, i.e. determination of the degree of people's participation in the management, use of automatic devices, computer equipment.

Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing. Telephone operators have been replaced largely by Metalworking - Historical Perspective automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to Metalworking - Historical Perspective obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation much has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from industrial jobs to service jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries.

2. Answer the questions:

1.What is the automation?

2.Why do we need automatic devices?

3.What tasks Metalworking - Historical Perspective do technological processes control?

4.Do production processes of automation begin with the definition of problem?

5.What is the important thing in solving of the automation problem?

6.Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash, haven’t they?

7.What is the next step of development after the automation Metalworking - Historical Perspective?

8.How can automation affect the level of unemployment?

9.Why are automated systems better than human being?

3. True or false:

1.Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to increase the need for human work in the production of goods and services

2.Automation doesn’t play an increasingly important Metalworking - Historical Perspective role in the world economy and in daily experience.

3.Automation of production processes begins with the formulation of the problem.

4.Automation increases the need for human sensory and mental requirements.

5.Telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines.

6.Automated teller machines have reduced Metalworking - Historical Perspective the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions.

7.In general, automation much hasn’t been responsible for the shift in the world economy from industrial jobs to service jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries.

4. Choose the right preposition:

1.Automation plays an increasingly Metalworking - Historical Perspective important role … the world economy and … daily experience. (on, in, at)

2.Medical processes such as primary screening ... electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis … human genes, cells, and tissues are carried out. (of, out, in).

3.The important thing ... solving ... the automation problem is the selection ...the control system. (at, for, of, in).

4.Automation Metalworking - Historical Perspective greatly decreases the need ... human sensory and mental requirements as well. (of, for, since)

5.Technological processes control ... use of automated systems includes the solution of the main objectives. (with, in, of)

II вариант

1. Read the text:

Automation

Automation is the system of manufacture perform­ing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only Metalworking - Historical Perspective. The sequences of operations are controlled auto­matically. The most familiar example of a highly auto­mated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products. The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can op­erate independently of human Metalworking - Historical Perspective control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The Metalworking - Historical Perspective simplification of work мейд it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency. Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human work­ers, are now widely Metalworking - Historical Perspective used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy work pieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine. In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became Metalworking - Historical Perspective known as Detroit automation.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-con­trol mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the fly ball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the Metalworking - Historical Perspective steam engine. The common household ther­mostat is another example of a feedback device.

Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations. Computers have greatly facilitated Metalworking - Historical Perspective the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled ma­chining centre, machine tools can perform several dif­ferent machining operations. More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and Metalworking - Historical Perspective computers have мейд possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device.

2. Define the main Metalworking - Historical Perspective idea of the text:

1.Automated control systems

2.Automated manufacturing

3.Using feedback devices

4.The introduction of microprocessors and computers

3. Questions to the text:

1.What was the first step in the development of automaton?

2.What were the first robots originally designed for?

3.Was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

4.What is feedback Metalworking - Historical Perspective principle?

5.What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?

6.In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production, didn’t it?

4. Put the following sentences logically in the right order according to the text:

1.The feedback principle has been used for centuries Metalworking - Historical Perspective.

2.In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production.

3.These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

4.When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse Metalworking - Historical Perspective, light pen, or other input device.

5.Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development.

6.The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can op­erate independently of human control.

5. True or false:

1.Automation is the system of manufacture perform­ing certain tasks Metalworking - Historical Perspective.

2.Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much lower and worse than could be done by people.

3.The simplification of work мейд it impossible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker.

4.This method of Metalworking - Historical Perspective production wasn’t adopted by most car manufacturers and didn’t become known as Detroit automation

5.An outstanding early example is the fly ball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the steam engine.

6.The introduction of microprocessors and computers have мейд possible the development of computer Metalworking - Historical Perspective-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies.

7.Computers didn’t give rise to the development of numerically controlled machines.

6. Choose the right preposition:

1.The most familiar example ... a highly auto­mated system is an assembly plant for automobiles.

1. in 2. of 3. at

2.Automated manufacturing had several steps ... its Metalworking - Historical Perspective development.

1. at 2. in 3. under

3.In the 1920s the automobile industry ... the first time used an integrated system of production.

1.before 2. after 3. for

4.This method of production was adopted ... most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.

1. for 2. by 3. into

5.... numerically controlled ma­chining centre, machine tools can perform several dif­ferent Metalworking - Historical Perspective machining operations.

1. behind 2.in 3.to

6. The motions of these machines are controlled ... punched paper or

magnetic tapes.

1. by 2. to 3. at

7. ... the drawing has been completed the computer auto.

1. for 2. after 3. of

III ВАРИАНТ

1. Read and translate the text:

Automation of processes

A process control or automation system is used to automatically control a process such Metalworking - Historical Perspective as chemical, oil refineries, paper and pulp factories. The PAS often uses a network to interconnect sensors, controllers, operator terminals and actuators. The PAS is often based on open standards in contrast to a DCS (distributed control system), which is traditionally proprietary. However in recent times Metalworking - Historical Perspective the PAS is considered to be more associated with SCADA systems. PAS is the lowest level of automation, while MES (manufacturing execution system) is considered to be directly positioned above a PAS. Process automation involves using computer technology and software engineering to help power plants and factories in industries as Metalworking - Historical Perspective diverse as paper, mining and cement operate more efficiently and safely. Major blocks of PAS are: microprocessors, micro controllers and microcomputers, multiprocessors, LANs, SCADA, RTU (remote terminal units) and analog and digital I/O modules.

In the absence of process automation, plant operators have to physically monitor performance values and Metalworking - Historical Perspective the quality of outputs to determine the best settings on which to run the production equipment. Maintenance is carried out at set intervals. It is generally results in operational inefficiency and unsafe operating conditions. Process automation simplifies it with the help of sensors at thousands of spots around the plant Metalworking - Historical Perspective that collect data on temperatures, pressures, flows and so on. The information is stored and analyzed on the computer and the entire plant and each piece of production equipment can be monitored on a large screen in a control room. Plant operating settings are then automatically adjusted to achieve Metalworking - Historical Perspective the optimum production. Plant operators can manually override the process automation systems when necessary.

Factory owners want their equipment to deliver the highest output with as little production cost as possible. In many industries including oil, gas and petrochemicals, energy costs can represent 30 to 50 percent of the total production Metalworking - Historical Perspective cost. In process automation, the computer program uses measurements to show not only how the plant is working but to simulate different operating modes and find the optimal strategy for the plant. A unique characteristic of this software is its ability to "learn" and predict trends, helping Metalworking - Historical Perspective speed up the response time to changing conditions. The software and controls regulate equipment to run at the optimum speed that requires the least energy. They also ensure the consistency of quality, meaning less energy is wasted producing products that turn out to be defective, and they forecast when maintenance is Metalworking - Historical Perspective needed so less time and energy is spent stopping and restarting equipment for routine inspections.

Vocabulary:

· oil refineries – нефтеперерабатывающие фабрики

· PAS – автоматизация технологических процессов

· DCS – распределенная система управления

· SCADA – диспетчерское управление и сбор данных

· Maintenance – техническое сервис

· LAN – локальная вычислительная сеть

2. Answer the questions:

1.Why is used a process control or automation system?

2.What Metalworking - Historical Perspective is the PAS?

3.What are the major blocks of PAS?

4.How is carried maintenance?

5.Process automation simplifies it with the help of sensors at thousands of spots around the plant, doesn’t it?

6.Is the information stored and analyzed on the computer or in the control room?

7.Why Metalworking - Historical Perspective do the software and controls regulate equipment?

3. True or False:

1.In many industries including oil, gas and petrochemicals, energy costs can represent 40 to 70 percent of the total production cost.

2.The information is stored and analyzed on the computer and the entire plant and each piece of production equipment Metalworking - Historical Perspective can be monitored on a small screen in a control room.

3.A unique characteristic of this software is its ability to "learn" and predict trends, helping speed up the response time to changing conditions.

4.They also ensure the consistency of quality, meaning less energy is wasted producing products that Metalworking - Historical Perspective turn out to be defective, and they forecast when maintenance is needed so less time and energy is spent stopping and restarting equipment for routine inspections.

5.Major blocks of PAS are: microprocessors, micro controllers and microcomputers, microprocessors, LANs, SCADA, RTU (remote terminal units) and analog and digital I/O modules

IV вариант

1. Read Metalworking - Historical Perspective the text:

Metalworking - Historical Perspective

A

Metalworking is one of three major technologies used to fabricate metal products; the others are casting and powder metallurgy. However, metalworking is perhaps the oldest and most mature of the three. The earliest records of metalworking describe the simple hammering of gold and copper in Metalworking - Historical Perspective various regions of the Middle East around 8000 B.C. The forming of these metals was crude because the art of refining by smelting was unknown and because the ability to work the material was limited by impurities that remained after the metal had been separated from the Metalworking - Historical Perspective ore. With the advent of copper smelting around 4000 B.C., a useful method became available for purifying metals through chemical reactions in the liquid state. Later, in the Copper Age, it was found that the hammering of metal brought about desirable increases in strength (a phenomenon now known as strain Metalworking - Historical Perspective hardening). The quest for strength spurred a search for alloys that were inherently strong and led to the utilization of alloys of copper and tin (the Bronze Age) and iron and carbon (the Iron Age). In the Iron Age, which can be dated as beginning around 1200 B.C., followed Metalworking - Historical Perspective the beginning of the Bronze Age by some 1300 years. The reason for the delay was the absence of methods for achieving the high temperatures needed to roll and to refine iron ore.

B

Most metalworking was done in хэнд until the 13th century. At this time, the tilt hammer was developed Metalworking - Historical Perspective and used primarily for forging bars and plates. The machine used water power to raise a lever arm that had a hammering tool at one end. It was called a tilt hammer because the arm tilted as the hammering tool was raised. After raising the hammer, the Metalworking - Historical Perspective blacksmith let it fall under the force of gravity, thus generating the forging blow. This relatively simple device remained service for some centuries.

C

The development of rolling mills followed that of forging equipment Leonardo da Vinci's notebook includes a sketch of a machine designed in 1480 for the rolling of lead Metalworking - Historical Perspective for stained glass windows. In 1045 da Vinci is reported to have rolled at sheets of precious metal on a hand-operated two-roll mill for coin-making purposes. In the following years, several signs for rolling mills were utilized in Germany, Italy, France, and England. However, the development Metalworking - Historical Perspective of large mills capable of hot rolling ferrous materials took almost 200 years. This relatively slow progress was primarily due to the limited supply of iron. Early mills employed flat rolls for making sheet and plate, and until the middle of the 18th century, these mills were driven by Metalworking - Historical Perspective water wheels.

D

During the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century, processes were devised for making iron and steel in large quantities to satisfy the demand for metal products. A need arose for forging equipment with larger capacity. This need is answered with the invention of the high-speed Metalworking - Historical Perspective steam hammer, in which the hammer is raised by steam power, and the hydraulic press, in which the force is supplied by hydraulic pressure. From such equipment came products ranging from rearms to locomotive parts. Similarly, the steam engine spurred developments in rolling, and in the 10th century, a Metalworking - Historical Perspective variety of steel products were rolled in significant quantities.

E

The past 100 years have seen the development of new types of metalworking equipment and new materials with special properties and applications. The new types of equipment have included mechanical and screw presses and high-speed idem tolling mills. The materials Metalworking - Historical Perspective that have benefited from such developments in equipment range from the ubiquitous л-carbon steel used in automobiles and appliances to specialty aluminum-, titanium-, and nickel-base alloys. In the last years, the formulation of sophisticated mathematical analyses of forming processes has led to higher-quality products and increased Metalworking - Historical Perspective efficiency in the metalworking industry.


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